A Guide to the "Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture Center," selected exhibit panels, 2010 "Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture Center," selected exhibit panels Ms2011-075

"Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture Center," selected exhibit panels, 2010

A Collection in
Special Collections
Collection Number Ms2011-075


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Special Collections, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Special Collections, University Libraries (0434)
560 Drillfield Drive
Newman Library, Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, Virginia 24061
USA
Phone: (540) 231-6308
Fax: (540) 231-3694
Email: specref@vt.edu
URL: http://spec.lib.vt.edu/

© 2011 By Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. All rights reserved.

Processed by: Sherrie A. Bowser, Special Collections

Repository
Special Collections, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.
Collection Number
Ms2011-075
Title
"Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture Center," selected exhibit panels, 2010
Physical Characteristics
4.3 cu. ft.
Creator
Dunay, Donna
Location
Note: A portion of this collection is in off-site storage and requires 2-3 days notice for retrieval. Please contact Special Collections for more information.
Language
English
Abstract
"Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture Center" was an exhibition held at the Virginia Center for Architecture in Richmond, Virginia, as part of their Dominion Exhibition Series and was on display from March 4-June 6, 2010. It featured the work of pioneering women in architecture and design from the International Archive of Women in Architecture (IAWA) collection at Virginia Tech.

Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Use Restrictions

Permission to publish material from "Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archives of Women in Architecture Center" exhibit must be obtained from Special Collections, Virginia Tech.

Preferred Citation

Researchers wishing to cite this collection should include the following information: "Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archives of Women in Architecture Center," Ms2011-075, Special Collections, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

Acquisition Information

The materials used in the "Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture Center" exhibit were returned to Special Collections, July 2010.

Processing Information

The processing, arrangement, and description of the "Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archives of Women in Architecture Center" was completed in September 2011.


Historical Note

"Glass Ceilings: Highlights from the International Archive of Women in Architecture" was developed in partnership with Virginia Tech’s International Archive of Women in Architecture (IAWA) Center and the Virginia Center for Architecture (VCA),in in recognition of Minds Wide Open, the statewide initiative celebrating women in the arts. The exhibition was held at the Virginia Center for Architecture in Richmond, Virginia, as part of their Dominion Exhibition Series and was on display from March 4-June 6, 2010.

The exhibition, featured the work of pioneering women in architecture and design from the International Archive of Women in Architecture (IAWA) collection at Virginia Tech, including Lilia Skala, who fled the Nazis in 1939 carrying her student architectural portfolio and who later became a well-known actress in the U.S., Nobuko Nakahara, one of the first women to be licensed as an architect in Japan, Lois Gottlieb, a California architect who was one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s apprentices in the 1940’s, Beverly Willis, who, in the 1970’s, developed CARLA, among the first software used for architecture and planning, Mary Brown Channel, the first woman to be registered as an architect in the state of Virginia, and Han Schroeder, who grew up in the famed Rietveld-Schroeder House, was educated in Switzerland, practiced as an architect and interior designer in the Netherlands, and later moved to the U.S. and taught interior design at Virginia Commonwealth University.

The exhibit also featured a series of 100 postcards (100 POSTCARDS: A Glimpse into the IAWA Center) highlighting the range of materials in the IAWA collection, developed by students in Virginia Tech’s Researching Women in Architecture seminar. Student contributors are Marissa Brown, Antonia Ciaverella, Candice Davis, Alexandra Phelan, Heather Riley, and Rehanna Rojiani.

Scope and Content

The items used in the exhibit have been returned to their original collections except for the matted reproductions made of items deemed too fragile or valuable to be on display. This collection consists of those reproductions although a complete list of items used in the exhibit has also been compiled in an effort to document the event.

The biographical notes for each entry are recorded from the exhibit labels that accompanied the materials.

Index Terms

    Persons:

  • Channel, Mary Brown, 1907-2006
  • Currie, Virginia M. Herz
  • Gottlieb, Lois Davidson
  • Harkness, Sarah Pillsbury
  • Hastings, L. Jane
  • Hayden, Florence Kenyon
  • Nakahara, Nobuko
  • Pettersen, Eleanore, 1916-2003
  • Schroeder, Han, 1918-1992
  • Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete
  • Skala, Lilia Sofer
  • Smithson, Alison
  • Somaya, Brinda
  • Torre, Susana, 1944-
  • Tyng, Anne
  • Vinciarelli, Lauretta
  • Waters, Clara Erskine Clement, 1834-1916
  • Weström, Hilde
  • Willis, Beverly
  • Occupations:

  • Architects.
  • Subjects:

  • International Archive of Women in Architecture (IAWA)

Contents List

SERIES I: Reproductions
Scope and Content

The Reproductions series consists of the matted reproductions made of items deemed too fragile or valuable to be on display for the exhibit. All of the original materials exist within Special Collections and their locations have been recorded. Please see staff for assistance.

  • Anna Keichline [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Anna Keichline, United States, 1889-1943. Holding seven design patents, including a space-saving fold-away bed, Anna Keichline became the first registered woman architect in Pennsylvania. In the 1920s, she patented a combination washtub and sink and a kitchen system that included sloped countertops and glass-doored cabinets. Her best known invention was the so-called "K Brick" in 1927, which prefigured the modern concrete block.

    • K Brick, patented 1927
  • Anne Griswold Tyng, FAIA [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Anne Tyng, China, 1920-, a pioneer in space-frame architecture and inventor of the adjustable Tyng Toy for children, collaborated with famed architect Louis Kahn for 19 years at his practice in Philadelphia. She holds a Master of Architecture degree from Harvard University and taught at the University of Pennsylvania from 1968 until her retirement in 1995.

    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      Sketch, Large meeting-dining paces made by corbelling pre-cast squares and unifying structure with 3 Dimensional Flying Buttresses, pen
    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      Sketch, Room arrangement proposed for building as built (not used), pen
    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      Sketch, Arched-Cylindrical version of cut-away columns, pen
  • Alison Smithson [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Alison Smithson, England, 1928-1993, architect and author, was educated at the University of Durham and worked at the London County Council until she formed a partnership in 1950 with her husband Peter Smithson. As founding members of the design collective, Team 10, they were instrumental in calling attention to issues of welfare and consumer society within Modernism at mid-century.

    • Parc de la Villette Competition sketch, September 14, 1982, mylar transfer
  • Beverly Willis, FAIA [Ms1992-019]
    Biographical Note

    Beverly Willis, FAIA, United States, 1928-, the noted San Francisco artist, photographer, teacher, and writer, applied the full range of visual arts and design skills to her architectural projects which include the San Francisco Ballet. A former President of the American Institute of Architects California Council, Willis was also a founding trustee of the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C. Following Willis' lead, the Beverly Willis Architectural Foundation, established in 2002, continues to recognize and expand awareness of women's contributions to architecture.

    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      Perspective of proposed project in relationship to land forms, illustration 10
  • Lilia Skala [Ms2003-015]
    Biographical Note

    Lilia Skala, Austria, 1896-1994, one of Austria's first female architects, fled the Nazis in 1939 with, among little else, her student portfolio in architecture from the University of Dresden. Better known for her acting than her architecture, Skala has appeared in Broadway, television, and in many films including Lilies of the Field (1963), opposite Sydney Poitier.

    • Entrance perspective, circa 1920, pen and ink wash
  • Margarete Schutte-Lihotzky [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Margarete Schutte-Lihotzky, Austria, 1897-2000, was Austria's first female architect and an activist in the German Resistance movement during the Nazi regime. She was also the first woman to study architecture at the High School for the Applied Arts in Vienna and worked under Oskar Strnad, a Viennese architect, sculptor, and theatre designer who was an early champion of working-class housing. Remembered most for designing the Frankfurt Kitchen, Schutte-Lihotzky redefined how this space in the home could be a model of efficiency and Modern design.

    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      New York Times obituary, Sunday January 23, 2000
    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      100th year celebration program, 1897-1997
  • Mary Brown Channel [Ms2007-030]
    Biographical Note

    Mary Brown Channel, United States, 1932-1981. After graduating from Randolph-Macon Woman's College in 1925, Channel earned her degree in Architecture from Cornell University in 1933. Mary Brown Channel was the first woman registered architect in the state of Virginia. She became known for her residential and church designs in the tidewater area of Virginia.

    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      VEP (Virginia Electrical Power) Company Elevation, pencil drawing, August 10, 1936
  • Virginia Currie [Ms2001-005]
    Biographical Note

    Virginia Currie, United States, 1913-2006, was a 1936 graduate of the architecture program at the University of Minnesota. With her husand, Leonard J. Currie, they traveled around the world and became an active volunteer in each of their communities.

    • Oversize Map-case 33|Drawer 10
      Modern Hotel Suite, circa 1934, watercolor
SERIES II: Original Material
Scope and Content

The Original Material series is a listing of non-reproduction items used in the exhibit. They have been returned to their original collections.

  • Beverly Willis, FAIA [Ms1992-019]
    Biographical Note

    Beverly Willis, FAIA, United States, 1928-, the noted San Francisco artist, photographer, teacher, and writer, applied the full range of visual arts and design skills to her architectural projects which include the San Francisco Ballet. A former President of the American Institute of Architects California Council, Willis was also a founding trustee of the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C. Following Willis' lead, the Beverly Willis Architectural Foundation, established in 2002, continues to recognize and expand awareness of women's contributions to architecture.

    • Box-folder 49|15
      CARLA booklet
    • Box-folder 49|15
      CARLA brochure, trifold
    • Box-folder 49|15
      Computer applications brochure
    • Box-folder 49|15
      Site perspective, illustration 7 [line negative - white on black]
  • Books
    • Brinda Somaya [Ms2003-005]
      Biographical Note

      Brinda Somaya, India, has directed her Mumbai firm Somaya and Kalappa for three decades with the belief that "development and progress must proceed without straining the cultural and historic environment." She is the founding trustee of the Hector Foundation and member of the advisory committee to the Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai for the Protection and Improvement of Streets and Public Spaces. Somaya received her Bachelor of Architecture degree from J.J. College of Architecture, Mumbai, and her Master of Architecture degree from Smith College in the United States.

      • Traditional Architecture of Coorg, Silent Sentinels, The HECAR Foundation, 2005 [not part of IAWA collections]
      • An Emancipated Place: 2000 plus: a conference on the work of women architects: focus South Asia, The HECAR Foundation, 2000 [Spec Large NA1500 .E52 2000]
    • Clara Erskine Clement Waters
      Biographical Note

      Clara Erskine Clement Waters, United States, 1834-1916, traveled extensively, spending time in Italy, Japan, China, and India. Her writings have proven vital to the study of the built environment and include texts on the history of architecture, the use of symbolism in Christian art, and a biographical encyclopedia of women artists from the seventh century B.C. to the twentieth century A.D.

      • An outline history of architecture for beginners and students: with complete indexes and numerous illustrations Clara Erskine Clement [Spec Small NA200 .W47 1886]
      • Women in the Fine Arts, from the seventh century B.C. to the twentieth century A.D.' Clara Erskine Clement [Spec Small N43 .W3 1904]
    • Despina Stratigakos
      • A Women's Berlin: Building the Modern City, University of Minnesota Press, 2008, Recipient of the Milka Bliznakov Prize 2008 [Art+Arch Library NA2543.W65 S77 2008]
    • Lauretta Vinciarelli [in IAWA Small Collections]
      Biographical Note

      Lauretta Vincirelli, Italy, 1943-. Throughout her career, Vinciarelli has continually explored the deeply rooted relationship between art and architecture. Her work resides in the permanent collections of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

      • Lauretta Vinciarelli: Watercolors, Not Architecture but Evidence that it Exists ed. Brook Hodge, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, New York, 1998 [Art+Architecture Library ND1839.V46 A4 1998]
      • Lois Gottlieb
        Biographical Note

        Lois Gottlieb, United States, 1926-, attended Stanford University, served as a Taliesin Fellow under Frank Lloyd Wright from 1948 to 1949 and attended Harvard Graduate School of Design. She designed residences in California, Washington, Idaho, and Virginia and is the author of Environment and Design in Housing (1965).

        • A way of life: an apprenticeship with Frank Lloyd Wright [Art+Arch Library NA737.W7 G67 2001]
    • Sara Harkness, FAIA [Ms1997-024]
      Biographical Note

      Sarah Harkness, FAIA, United States, 1914-, Principal Emeritus of the Architects Collaborative and former President of the Boston Society of Architects, received her Master of Architecture degree from Smith College's Graduate School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture in 1940. Harkness has also been a distinguished lecturer, critic, and thesis advisor for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Arizona, and the Boston Architectural Center

      • Sustainable design for two Maine islands : final report / by the Institute for Energy Conscious Design, Boston Architectural Center ; report edited by Leslie Horst and Sarah P. Harkness. [Spec Large HT393.M2 S9 1985]
  • Eleanore Pettersen [Ms2003-018]
    Biographical Note

    Eleanore Pettersen, FAIA, United States, 1916-2003, was one of the first women licensed as an architect in the state of New Jersey in 1950, the first woman in New Jersey to open her own architectural office (1952), and the first woman president of the New Jersey State Board of Architects. Pettersen served as an apprentice to Frank Lloyd Wright and attended Cooper Union for Advancement of Science and Art in New York City (1937-1941).

    • Oversize Map-case 30|Drawer 2|Folders 12-13
      #5102 - Barn, Saddle River, NJ, pencil drawings
    • Oversize Map-case 32|Drawer 7
      #5102 First floor studio and residence, dated 4/28/1951, Saddle River, New Jersey, working drawing
    • Oversize Map-case 32|Drawer 7
      #7009 Additions to barn, Saddle River, dated 8/10/1970, Saddle River, New Jersey, drawing
    • Oversize Map-case 32|Drawer 7
      Greenhouse addition to Pettersen residence, dated 5/18/1982, Saddle River, New Jersey, drawing
    • Box 7P
      Article from Jersey Architect,1958
    • Box 80
      Article from The American Home "Remodeling: Old Barn Into Lovely Home," 1965
  • Florence Kenyon Hayden [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Florence Kenyon Hayden, United States, 1882-1973, was the first woman to study architecture at Ohio State University and the first woman registered architect in Ohio. At the behest of Ohio State's president William Oxley Thompson, who pushed for a women's residence hall on campus, Hayden designed what would become Oxley Hall. At first, however, the Board of Trustees did not hold much hope for Hayden and they insisted on assigning her a male assistant. Contending that she could not reason with him after spending one day together, Hayden promptly locked him out of the room. With the help of only one other draftsperson, she finished the plans in just 27 days. Hayden supervised the construction and, in the end, came in under budget for both cost and time.

    • Box 4
      Architecture 15, lesson plans
    • Box 4
      Photograph of Oxley Hall, Ohio State University
  • Han Schroeder [Ms1987-064]
    Biographical Note

    Han Schroeder, Netherlands, 1918-1992. Schroeder's artistic and architectural education began early, when her mother commissioned the architect Gerrit Rietveld to design what is now known as the Rietveld-Schroeder House, completed in 1924. In this house, Rietveld employed the revolutionary concept of movable walls to make the interior flexible, thereby redefining the limits of space. Growing up in this house fueled Hans interest in architecture, and the beginning of her friendship to Rietveld and her devotion to his ideas. In 1936, she entered the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, and graduated in 1940 with the degree of Diplom Architekt. Schroeder opened her own office in 1954. Later, she moved to the United States and taught interior design at Virginia Commonwealth University.

    • Oversize Map-case 1
      House with garage, Holland, blueprint, Woonhuis met garage aan de Burg. V. Tuyll-laan te Zeist, i.o.p. deheer T. Gaastra Dalweg 3 te Zeist, 1959
  • Hilde Westrom [Ms1987-061]
    Biographical Note

    Hilde Westrom, Germany, 1912-, was among the few women enrolled in architectural studies at the Berlin-Charlottenburg Polytechnic in 1932. In 1952, she won a national competition for elderly housing in Berlin and by 1957 joined the Berlin Internationale Bauausstellung, or Interbai, to develop dwelling-types for Germany. Over the next 30 years, Westrom completed more than 800 housing units (condominiums, rental apartments, social housing, private houses) and won numerous design competitions.

    • Oversize Map-case 25|Drawer 1|Folder 4
      Altenwohnheim at Eyke, drawings, Project 145 (3 drawings)
  • "History of Women Architects," Exhibit Panels, German Federal Republic Section of the International Union of Women Architects, [Ms1988-059]
    1986-1987
    • Oversize Map-case 10|Drawer 4
      Panel #1
  • Jane Hastings, FAIA [Ms2004-004]
    Biographical Note

    Jane Hastings, FAIA, United States, 1928-, an early member of the International Union of Women Architects (UIFA), was also the first woman president of the American Institute of Architects, Seattle. In 1992, Hastings became the first woman Chancellor of the American Institute of Architects' national honorary society, the College of Fellows.

    • Box 7H
      Altender mechanical drawing set
    • Box 7H
      State of Washington registration stamps
  • Lauretta Vinciarelli [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Lauretta Vincirelli, Italy, 1943-. Throughout her career, Vinciarelli has continually explored the deeply rooted relationship between art and architecture. Her work resides in the permanent collections of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

    • Box 14
      Selected tempura prints, #s 1,3,6
  • Lois Gottlieb [Ms1997-003]
    Biographical Note

    Lois Gottlieb, United States, 1926-, attended Stanford University, served as a Taliesin Fellow under Frank Lloyd Wright from 1948 to 1949 and attended Harvard Graduate School of Design. She designed residences in California, Washington, Idaho, and Virginia and is the author of Environment and Design in Housing (1965).

    • Box-folder 4|2
      Article House Beautiful "This one-room house has design character" by James M. Fitch, March 1953
    • Oversize Map-case 13|Drawer 3|Folder 7
      Blueprints, Val-Goeschen residence, Inverness, California
    • Box-folder 4|2
      Costs, Val-Goeschon residence, Iverness, California
    • Box-folder 4|1
      Article, Redwood News, "On an isolated mountainside..." Spring 1953
  • Nobuko Nakahara [in IAWA Small Collections]
    Biographical Note

    Nobuko Nakahara, Japan, 1929-2008. Nakahara's career started with a visit to a 10-person architectural firm to inquire about a job. She was told that if she could redesign the office space to fit eleven desks she would be hired and, in the end, Nakahara became the firm's eleventh employee. By founding the women's architecture association PODOKO in 1953, which grew to 28 members, Nakahara created a forum for women to discuss design. A decade later in Paris, she cofounded the Congress of the International Union of Women Architects (UIFA) and became its first president.

    • Oversize Map-case 33
      House in Kaikio, 1975, Japan panel
    • Oversize Map-case 33
      Tea garden panel [not used?]
  • Susana Torre [Ms1990-016]
    Biographical Note

    Susana Torre, Argentina, 1944-, has been the principal of several architecture firms, including Susana Torre and Associates in New York. She has held the position of Director of the Barnard College Architecture program, Associate Professor of Architecture at Columbia University, Director of the Cranbrook Academy of Art, and, in 1985 was a founding member of the International Archive of Women in Architecture.

    • Artifact Model
      Garvey residence, Amagansett Long Island, New York, model
    • Oversize Art
      Gravey residence, Amagansett Long Island, New York, framed drawing (2)
SERIES III. Supporting Materials
  • Box 1
    Articles about the exhibit, 2010
  • Box 1
    Exhibit labels
  • Box 1
    Photocopies of selected original materials from exhibit [to help with identification of the brochures and articles]

Significant Persons Associated With the Collection

  • Channel, Mary Brown, 1907-2006
  • Currie, Virginia M. Herz
  • Dunay, Donna
  • Gottlieb, Lois Davidson
  • Harkness, Sarah Pillsbury
  • Hastings, L. Jane
  • Hayden, Florence Kenyon
  • Nakahara, Nobuko
  • Pettersen, Eleanore, 1916-2003
  • Schroeder, Han, 1918-1992
  • Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete
  • Skala, Lilia Sofer
  • Smithson, Alison
  • Somaya, Brinda
  • Torre, Susana, 1944-
  • Tyng, Anne
  • Vinciarelli, Lauretta
  • Waters, Clara Erskine Clement, 1834-1916
  • Weström, Hilde
  • Willis, Beverly