A Guide to the Encampment for Citizenship collection, 1939-2009 Encampment for Citizenship collection M 391

A Guide to the Encampment for Citizenship collection, 1939-2009

A Collection in
Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library
Collection Number M 391


Virginia Commonwealth University, James Branch Cabell Library

Special Collections and Archives
James Branch Cabell Library
Box 842003
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia 23284-2003
Phone: (804) 828-1108
Fax: (804) 828-0151
Email: libjbcsca@vcu.edu
URL: http://www.library.vcu.edu/about/special-collections/cabell/

© 2011 By Virginia Commonwealth University. All rights reserved.

Processed by: Special Collections and Archives staff

Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library, Virginia Commonwealth University
Collection Number
M 391
previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship collection, 1939-2009
Physical Characteristics
4.5 linear feet

Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

Collection is open to research.

Use Restrictions

There are no restrictions.

Preferred Citation

Box/folder, previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship collection, Collection # M 391, Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va.

Acquisition Information

Gift of Margot Gibney, Pamela Barefoot, Marion Silverbear, and Nancy Marr in 2010. Additional collection materials donated thereafter by Jon Kerner, Danny Fetonte, and Herbert Raffaele.

Alternative Form Available

Select materials are also available via VCU Libraries Gallery.

Historical Information

The previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship (EFC), a national youth program affiliated with the American Ethical Union, was founded in 1946, by Algernon Black, a social activist and New York Society for Ethical Culture leader, and Alice Pollitzer, a prominent civic leader and Ethical Culture Movement member. They sought to counter rising fascism abroad as well as social and political factionalism at home by impressing on America's young people the value of democracy and by helping youth develop the skills to be "a responsible, informed, effective and courageous citizenship" capable of taking the lead in helping to solve society's most complex and intractable problems. Inspired by the service learning programs of the Civilian Conservation Corp and work camps of the Great Depression era, the organization created a "program of citizenship education" aimed at "initiating youth into community problems" and preparing them "for the responsibilities of community participation and democratic action."

The EFC's programs provided an ethnically, geographically, religiously, and economically diverse group of young people with an experience in self-governed, democratic living as well as more traditional learning opportunities such as workshops, lectures, and discussion groups. Program participants were encouraged to examine current political, social, and economic issues through a curriculum designed to develop critical thinking and leadership skills. A variety of subjects were explored such as social and economic justice, health and poverty, criminal justice, international relations, human rights, the environment, labor politics, education reform, racism and sexism, community and economic democracy, and youth empowerment. Over the years, the program also came to include internship and community service projects, field trips, political activities, and community government participation.

During the 50 years following the previous hitEncampment's next hit inception in 1946, more than 7,000 young people participated in EFC annual summer sessions, year-round leadership training programs, and various short-term projects in locations across the United States and Puerto Rico. Some notable EFC alumni include: Gale Brewer, Ada Deer, Joseph O. Prewitt Diaz, Barney Frank, William Haddad, David Harris, Allard Lowenstein, Jean McGuire, Eleanor Holmes Norton, Charles Patterson, Miles S. Rapoport, David Rothenberg, Hal Sieber, and Floyd "Red Crow" Westerman.

For several decades, the EFC enjoyed a national reputation. Prominent previous hitEncampment next hit supporters included Eleanor Roosevelt, who served as Chairwoman of the EFC Board of Sponsors from 1946 to 1962, and Martin Luther King, Jr. In the 1950s, the organization was viewed by some with suspicion, including the American Legion, which accused the EFC of being "un-American" and "socialistic." Widespread support for the organization continued through the 1970s, but began to wane in the 1980s within the country's conservative political climate. In the late-1990s, faced with declining support, the EFC began what would be a sixteen-year hiatus. In 2010, efforts by former EFC leaders and alumni were begun to revive the previous hitEncampment next hit, and their efforts succeeded in 2013 when the summer previous hitencampment next hit program relaunched with a two-week pilot program was held in Richmond, Virginia. As of 2016, the EFC conducts a residential program for youth each summer, holds a three-day Fall Leadership Institute, and provides year-round support to the previous hitencampment next hit community.

Source: Black, Algernon D. The Young Citizens: The Story of the previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1962.

Scope and Content

Special Collections and Archives began collecting records of the previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship in the spring of 2010, and it is expected that the burgeoning collection will become more comprehensive as additional donations of materials are received. As of 2016, donations have been made by: Margot Gibney, EFC executive director; Marion Silverbear, EFC administrator and former EFC alumni coordinator and development coordinator, who donated materials that were compiled and collected by Margot Gibney; Pamela Barefoot, a former EFC staff member; and Nancy Marr, an EFC alumna; as well as Jon Kerner, Danny Fetonte, and Herbert Faffaele.

Materials in the collection include previous hitEncampment next hit publications, program and recruitment brochures, correspondence and memoranda of EFC staff and board members, letters and correspondence of students and alumni, alumni and staff directories, alumni newsletters and reunion materials, yearbooks, and newspaper and magazine articles, fundraising and sponsorship materials, student and staff evaluation questionnaires, workshop materials, photographs, and slides. The bulk of the materials date from 1946 to 1997, with concentrations in the collection's holdings dating from the late 1970s to the early 1980s, and from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s.

In addition to the alumni, supporters, and donors noted above, the collection also documents the involvement of the following individuals with the EFC: Algernon Black, EFC founder; Robert Burkhardt, former director of the San Francisco Conservation Corp; Simeon Golar, former chairman of EFC board of directors; Anna Lee Hopson, former educational program committee chairman; Douglas Kelley, former EFC executive director; Loreine Kendrick, secretary to Algernon Black; Robert Lubetsky, EFC board member and former EFC executive director; Jean McGuire, METCO executive director and EFC alumna; Alexander Tureaud, former EFC board of directors and national advisory board member; Joe Turner, former regional director; Aline "Honi" Pollitzer Weiss, daughter of EFC founder Alice K. "Nanny" Pollitzer; Armand Weiss, EFC alumnus; Mark Weiss, former principal of Bronx Regional High School; Offie Wortham, EFC alumnus; and Vincent Wright, Denver previous hitencampment next hit site director.

Dr. Edward H. Peeples, Emeritus Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at Virginia Commonwealth University, has been involved in coordinating donation efforts. Dr. Peeples' affiliation with the EFC began when he attended the 1957 previous hitEncampment next hit, and he remained actively involved with the organization as a recruiter, site director, guest speaker, and advisory committee member. There are additional records related to the EFC in the Edward H. Peeples, Jr. Papers, which are also located in Special Collections and Archives.


This collection comprises multiple donations made by different donors at different times. In order to preserve this provenance, each donation has been arranged as a separate series.

Contents List

Series 1: Margot Gibney donation, 1947-2009
  • Box-folder 1:1
    Summer previous hitencampment next hit negatives, undated
  • Box-folder 1:2-1:12
    Summer previous hitencampment next hit slides, 1977-1980, undated
  • Box-folder 2:1
    Artwork transparencies, 1991
  • Box-folder 2:2-2:3
    Brochure layout roughs, 1989-1992
  • Box-folder 2:4
    previous hitEncampment next hit photographs, undated
  • Box-folder 2:5
    Event invitation, reply card, and envelope layout roughs, 1990-1994
  • Box-folder 2:6
    Newsletter layout roughs, 1990-1991
  • Box-folder 2:7
    Scrapbook of program materials from Empowered Youth Education Society (EYES) and other organizations, 1991-1992
  • Box-folder 2:8
    Southern Appalachian previous hitencampment next hit photograph, undated
  • Box-folder 3:1
    Brochure draft and newspaper clippings, 1949, 1961, 1964
  • Box-folder 3:2
    previous hitEncampment next hit summer program application, blank, 1990
  • Box-folder 3:3
    Excerpts from previous hitencampment next hit summer program application essays and photographs of applicants, 1991-1992
  • Box-folder 3:4
    Never Stop Running excerpts about Allard Lowenstein, 2009
  • Box-folder 3:5-3:7
    Photographs and related materials, 1947-1994, undated
  • Box-folder 3:8
    Photographs for publicity, 1989-1994, undated
  • Box-folder 3:9
    Photographs, negatives, and contact sheets of banquet, 1972
  • Box-folder 3:10
    Photographs of encampers gleaning lettuce with Ada Deer, 1991
  • Box-folder 3:11
    Photographs of fundraisers and summer programs, 1990
  • Box-folder 3:12
    Photographs of retreat, February, 1994
  • Box-folder 3:13
    Photographs of service projects, 1991
  • Box-folder 3:14
    Retreat goals and draft agenda, 1993
  • Box-folder 3:15
    Slide show narrative and notes, 1998-1991
  • Box-folder 3:16
    T-shirt design layout, 1993
Series 2: Pam Barefoot donation, 1973-1974
  • Box-folder 4:1
    Article about Denver previous hitencampment next hit by staff member Pam Barefoot, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:2
    Article about picketing by United Farm Workers and supporters, including Denver encampers, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:3
    Letters from Denver previous hitencampment next hit director and encampers to Colorado Governor regarding prison visit and prison reform, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:4
    Photographs of Denver previous hitencampment next hit - reunion, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:5
    Photographs of Denver previous hitencampment next hit - building playground, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:6
    Photographs of Denver previous hitencampment next hit - camping trip, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:7
    Photographs of Denver previous hitencampment next hit - encampers and staff, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:8
    Photographs of Denver previous hitencampment next hit - staff, 1973
  • Box-folder 4:9
    Recruitment Handbill, 1974
Series 3: Marion Silverbear donation, 1939-1996
  • Box-folder 5:1
    50th anniversary celebration, 1996
  • Box-folder 5:2
    Administrative evaluations of previous hitencampment next hit programs, 1973, 1978
  • Box-folder 5:3
    Admissions and recruitment, 1965-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 5:4
    Algernon Black correspondence 1956-1986, undated
  • Box-folder 5:5
    Algernon Black correspondence regarding previous hitencampment next hit dinners 1963-1964
  • Box-folder 5:6
    Alumni activity updates, undated
  • Box-folder 5:7
    Alumni Association - Chicago / Midwest region, 1987-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 5:8
    Alumni directory, 1959
  • Box-folder 5:9
    Alumni lists, 1946-1969, undated
  • Box-folder 5:10
    Alumni newsletters, 1954-1973, undated
  • Box-folder 5:11
    Alumni responses to Algernon Black's request for updates and comments, 1960, undated
  • Box-folder 5:12
    Alumni stories and testimonials, undated
  • Box-folder 5:13
    "Analysis of previous hitEncampment next hit Experience" report, 1977
  • Box-folder 5:14
    Annual budgets, 1967-1968
  • Box-folder 5:15
    Annual dinner, 1971-1972
  • Box-folder 5:16
    Armand Weiss correspondence, 1950-1954, 1974, undated
  • Box-folder 5:17
    Articles about Edward Peeples, 1984, undated
  • Box-folder 5:18
    The Balcony, undated
  • Box-folder 5:19
    Board correspondence, 1972-1985
  • Box-folder 5:20
    Board members, 1968-1986, undated
  • Box-folder 5:21
    Board of Directors meetings, 1978-1982
  • Box-folder 5:22
    Brochures and application forms, 1950-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 5:23
    By-laws, 1965, 1986
  • Box-folder 5:24
    Center for Education in Democracy, 1964-1965
  • Box-folder 5:25
    Center for Education in Democracy and previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship newsletter, 1964-1965
  • Box-folder 5:26
    The Citizen, 1946
  • Box-folder 5:27
    Death of Allard Lowenstein, 1980-1982, undated
  • Box-folder 5:28
    Documentary radio script, undated
  • Box-folder 5:29
    "The Dynamics of Attitudinal Change in a Citizenship Training Program" research proposal, 1958
  • Box-folder 5:30
    The Echo, 1957
  • Box-folder 5:31
    Education Conference Weekend Hudson Guild Farm, 1989
  • Box-folder 5:32
    Education Committee and Board memoranda, 1977-1981, undated
  • Box-folder 5:33
    Educational Program Committee meeting announcements, 1973
  • Box-folder 5:34
    Educational program draft, 1946
  • Box-folder 5:35
    Educational Program / Policy Committee meetings, 1967-1979, undated
  • Box-folder 5:36
    Empowered Youth Educating Society (EYES), 1991-1994
  • Box-folder 5:37
    previous hitEncampment next hit directory, 1957
  • Box-folder 5:38
    previous hitEncampment next hit Examiner, 1982
  • Box-folder 5:39
    previous hitEncampment next hit Ink, 1991
  • Box-folder 5:40
    previous hitEncampment next hit News, 1987-1995
  • Box-folder 5:41
    previous hitEncampment next hit site directors memorandum, undated
  • Box-folder 5:42
    Evaluation questionnaire forms, undated
  • Box-folder 5:43
    Executive committee, 1978-1982
  • Box-folder 5:44
    History and mission documents, 1963-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 5:45
    Lists of contributors, members, and staff, 1967-1969, undated
  • Box-folder 5:46
    Literary Magazine, 1988-1990
  • Box-folder 5:47
    Log, 1946
  • Box-folder 5:48
    Magazine, 1987
  • Box-folder 5:49
    "Mass Chant" production, undated
  • Box-folder 5:52
    Metzger-Price Fund, 1980, 1986
  • Box-folder 5:53
    Miscellaneous correspondence, 1950-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 5:54
    Miscellaneous documents, 1961-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 5:55
    Newspaper and magazine articles, 1947-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 5:57
    The Peacepipe, 1950
  • Box-folder 5:58
    Photograph caption, 1966-1976, undated
  • Box-folder 5:59
    Photograph contact sheets - summer programs, 1991-1993
  • Box-folder 5:60
    Photograph photocopies, 1946-1989, undated
  • Box-folder 5:61
    Photographs, 1947-1950, circa 1990s, undated
  • Box-folder 5:62
    Political Action Handbook, 1950
  • Box-folder 5:63
    Portrait photographs, undated
  • Box-folder 5:64
    Professional evaluations of the previous hitencampment next hit programs, 1968-1978, undated
  • Box-folder 5:65
    Programs for summer previous hitencampments next hit, 1950, 1966-1968, 1991-1992
  • Box-folder 5:65
    Reestablishment of the previous hitencampment next hit for citizenship, 1984-1986, undated
  • Box-folder 5:66
    Regional previous hitEncampment next hit Advisory Committee meeting notes, undated
  • Box-folder 5:67
    Reports on encamper demographics, 1955, undated
  • Box-folder 5:69
    Reunion announcement and newsletters, 1954-1957
  • Box-folder 5:70
    Robert Lubetsky correspondence, 1977-1984, undated
  • Box-folder 6:1
    Songbooks, 1950. undated
  • Box-folder 6:2
    Sponsors, 1952, 1965-1982, undated
  • Box-folder 6:3
    Staff evaluations, 1971-1977, undated
  • Box-folder 6:4
    Staff handbook, 1972
  • Box-folder 6:5
    Staff meetings, 1965, undated
  • Box-folder 6:6
    Staff training workshops, 1981-1982, undated
  • Box-folder 6:7
    Stone Soup for the World permission agreement, undated
  • Box-folder 6:8
    Student evaluations, 1973-1980
  • Box-folder 6:9
    "Student Project '67" Newsletter, 1967
  • Box-folder 6:10
    Training workshop, 1992-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 6:11
    Work camp programs brochures, 1939-1944
  • Box-folder 6:12
    Writing Workshop magazine, 1989
  • Box-folder 6:13
    Writings of Algernon Black, 1983, undated
  • Box-folder 6:14
    Year-end reports, 1981, undated
  • Box-folder 6:15-6:16
    Yearbooks, 1988-1996
  • Box-folder 6:17
    Youth Creating a Future Conference and Reunion, 1993
Series 4: Marion Silverbear donation, 1946-1997
  • Box-folder 7:1
    50th Anniversary correspondence, 1996
  • Box-folder 7:2
    Alex Tureaud correspondence, 1988-1994
  • Box-folder 7:3
    Algernon Black letters of recommendation for Theodore Phillips, 1964, 1968
  • Box-folder 7:4
    Algernon Black Memorial Fund, 1994
  • Box-folder 7:5
    Aline "Honi" Pollitzer Weiss materials, 1984-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 7:6
    Alumni correspondence, 1986-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 7:7
    Alumni demographic information, including years 1946 to 1959, circa 1959, undated
  • Box-folder 7:8
    Alumni lists and alumni groups materials, 1954-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 7:9
    Alumni notables articles and lists, 1990-1992, undated
  • Box-folder 7:10
    Barney Frank materials, 1987-1995, undated
  • Box-folder 7:11
    Board of Directors materials, 1988-1990, undated
  • Box-folder 7:12
    Charles Patterson materials, 1985-1995, undated
  • Box-folder 7:13
    Edward Peeples articles, 1989-1990
  • Box-folder 7:14
    Edward Peeples correspondence, 1984-1996
  • Box-folder 7:15
    Eleanor Holmes Norton correspondence, 1986-1996
  • Box-folder 7:16
    Encamper evaluation questionnaire, 1980
  • Box-folder 7:17
    Enrollment forms and information sheets, 1993
  • Box-folder 7:18
    Jean McGuire correspondence, 1986-1994, undated
  • Box-folder 7:19
    Joe Turner materials, 1988-1993
  • Box-folder 7:20
    Loraine Kendrick materials, 1986-1993
  • Box-folder 7:21
    Margot Gibney correspondence, 1986-1997, undated
  • Box-folder 7:22-7:23
    Marion Silverbear correspondence, 1988-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 7:24
    Mark Weiss correspondence, 1988-1992, undated
  • Box-folder 7:25
    "Mass Chant" production, 1946
  • Box-folder 7:26
    National Network of Youth Leadership Association (NNYLA), 1991
  • Box-folder 7:27
    Offie Wortham materials, 1980-1988, undated
  • Box-folder 7:28
    Other organizations promotional materials, 1995, 1997
  • Box-folder 7:29
    Philadelphia Area Youth Leadership Institute, 1995-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 7:30
    Photographs of Eleanor Roosevelt, Algernon Black, and Alice K. Pollitzer, 1946, undated
  • Box-folder 7:31
    Recruitment and outreach materials, 1986-1996, undated
  • Box-folder 7:32
    Reunion materials, 1986-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 7:33
    Robert Burkhardt materials, 1988-1995, undated
  • Box-folder 7:34
    Simeon Golar materials, 1988-1990, undated
  • Box-folder 7:35
    Vincent Wright materials, 1987-1993, undated
  • Box-folder 7:36
    Youth Leadership Development Project, 1996
Series 5: Nancy Marr donation, 1950
  • Box-folder 8:1
    EFC Yearbook, 1950
Series 6: Jon Kerner donation, 1962, 1965
  • Box-folder 8:2
    Center for Education in Democracy, 1965
  • Box-folder 8:3
    Photocopy of image of Jon Kerner at the previous hitencampment next hit, 1962
Series 7: Danny Fetonte donation, 1966, 1988-1990
  • Box-folder 8:4
    Labor Research Review: Privatization and Contracting Out, 1990
  • Box-folder 8:5
    Photographs of Barboursville, Kentucky previous hitencampment next hit, 1966, undated
  • Box-folder 8:6
    "We Stand Together," Communication Workers of America 50th anniversary video, 1988
Series 8: Herbert Raffaele donation, 1962-1970
  • Box-folder 8:7
    Annual dinner program, 1966
  • Box-folder 8:8
    Biographical essay about Douglas Kelley, 1965
  • Box-folder 8:9
    "Direction, Salience, and Intensity of the Effects of an Intergroup Education Experience" by Saal Lesser and Charles Winick, circa 1961
  • Box-folder 8:10
    "The previous hitEncampment next hit for Citizenship," by Saal Lesser, 1964
  • Box-folder 8:11
    Letter from Abraham Kanner to Herbert Raffaele about board position, 1968
  • Box-folder 8:12
    Montana previous hitencampment next hit materials, 1969
  • Box-folder 8:13
    New York Alumni Association newsletter, 1966
  • Box-folder 8:14
    Newspaper Article on the Montana previous hitencampment next hit, 1968
  • Box-folder 8:15
    Puerto Rico previous hitencampment next hit materials, 1962-1964
  • Box-folder 8:16
    VISA Magazine with Article "A View of the previous hitEncampment next hit Learning Process," by Herbert Raffaele, 1966
  • Box-folder 8:17
    "What Happened at the White Plains previous hitEncampment" program outline, 1970