Samuel X. Radbill was born in Philadelphia in 1901. He was educated in the Philadelphia public schools and received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1924. On December 27, 1925 he married Frances Hoffman. On June 1, 1926 he moved into 7043 Elmwood Avenue, in the Eastwick Section of Philadelphia, where he had his home and his office. His wife, a nurse, assisted him in his practice. He practiced in this office until his retirement in 1982. In 1938 he was certified as a pediatrician and provided pediatric services at Children's Hospital and Philadelphia General Hospital. He died in November 1987.
Radbill was a dedicated clinician, but he also was a scholar and a medical historian. Throughout his career he lectured and authored over several hundred reviews, articles, and books about medical history. Radbill actively collected books, physicians' book plates, and pediatric implements.